Astuces ZSH

Zzappers Best of ZSH Tips zzappers Tips Home Updated : 22Jan12 *N* Marks New *C* Corrected > zsh -fx # start a « clean » version of zsh (without your startup files) print $ZSH_VERSION Tips Home Searchable Mailing List Archive Everything? *C* Zsh-Reference-Card *N* man zsh man zshall zsh Zsh overview (this section) zshmisc Anything not fitting into the other sections zshexpn Zsh command and parameter expansion zshparam Zsh parameters zshoptions Zsh options zshbuiltins Zsh built-in functions zshzle Zsh command line editing zshcompwid Zsh completion widgets zshcompsys Zsh completion system zshcompctl Zsh completion control zshmodules Zsh loadable modules zshzftpsys Zsh built-in FTP client zshall Meta-man page containing all of the above /usr/share/zsh/htmldoc/zsh_toc.html Install on Linux > yum install zsh *N* Global aliases Searching and filtering my mysql database with my own utility searchdb >searchdb client1 | grep -i website1 | fmt -50 | putclip How you can simplify this using 3 zsh Global Aliases >searchdb client1 G website1 F P alias -g ND=’*(/om[1])’ # newest directory alias -g NF=’*(.om[1])’ # newest file Example of use cp NF ND # useful zsh stuff *N* ls *(.) # list just regular files *N* ls *(/) # list just directories *N* vi *(.om[1]) # vi newest file vi -p *(.om[1,3]) # open 3 newest files in tabs (gvim) vi *(m0) # re-edit all files changed today! ls *(^m0) # files NOT modified today ls -l *(m4) # list files modified exactly 4 days ago ls -l *(.m4) # list files modified exactly 4 days ago (ignore directories) vi **/main.php # where ever it is in hierarchy ls -l **/main.{php,js,css} # *N* ls fred^erick* # list all files fred* except frederick* *N* ls *.^pdf # list all but pdf’s *NN* ls (x*~x[3-5]) # list files x* except x3 to x5 ls x^[3-5]* # list files x* except x3 to x5 *N* ls **/*~*/.git/* # ignore all git subdirectories *~* matches a path *N* vi !$ # vi last parameter vi !-2:2 # second parameter of second but last command vi !$:r.php # vi last parameter but change extension to .php ^php^cfm # modify previous command (good for correcting spellos) ls *(.L0) # list pesky empty files (yes that is a zero) *N* ls -l *(L-2) # list file size less than 2 bytes *N* ls -l *(.L-20) # list file size less than 20 bytes – . ignore directories *N* ls -l *(Lk+100) # list file size greater than 100kb *N* ls -l *(Lm+2) # list file size greater than 2 mbs *N* grep -i « $1″ */*.php~libs/*~temp/*~test/* # exclude directories lib,temp,test from grep *N* grep -i « $1″ **/*.{js,php,css}~(libs|temp|temp|test)/* # exclude directories from grep *N* !! !$ (last argument) !$:h (last argument, strip one level) !$:h:h (last argument, strip two levels) !?echo vi !* (all parameters) vi !$ (last parameter) vi !^ (first previous parameter) vi !:1 (first previous parameter) vi !-2:2 (second parameter of second but last command) echo !:2-3 # echo previous parameters 2 to 3 *N* echo !:2* # echo previous parameters 2 onwards *N* echo !:2- # echo previous parameters 2 onwards omitting last *N* history # View recent commands !42 # Re-execute history command 42 # substitute previous command r oldstr=newstr !!:s/fred/joe/ # edit previous command replace first fred by joe !!:s/fred/joe/ # Note : sadly no regexp available with :s/// !!:gs/fred/joe/ # edit previous command replace all fred by joe mv Licence\ to\ Print\ Money.pdf !#^:gs/ // # rename file removing spaces ^fred^joe # edit previous command replace fred by joe ^str1^str2^:u:p # replace str1 by str2 change case and just display echo chim ^chim^&-&ney-&-&-cheree # reuse LHS !42:p also use control-R ^str1^str2^:G # replace as many as possible cd !?ls #get command and parameters of a previous ls command cd !?ls?:* #get (just) parameters of a previous ls command Generating a command from an earlier one How to recall the parameters of a previous command, on line 7 below recall the parameters of line 5 5> mv somefile1 /home/saket/stuff/books/ 6> acroread somefile.pdf 7> mv somefile2 /home/saket/stuff/books/ > mv !?saket Would bring up the whole line ready for a little editing or purist > mv !?saket?:* Would just bring up the parameters If you know the history number of the line (say 5) with desired parameters you can try > !5:s/somefile1/somefile2/ and if you dont know the history number !?saket?:s/somefile1/somefile2/ # History Substitution Summary #For CURRENT line that you are editing (the # designates current line) # Remember Tab will expand the following !#:0 command !#^ first parameter !#:1 first parameter !#:1-4 first 4 parameters !#$ last parameter !#* all parameters !#$:s/bash/zsh perform substitution on previous parameter # rename a file with a prefix cp longfilename.php backup_!#^ cp {,backup_}verylongfilename.tex # same thing mv textfile.{txt,bak} # expands to mv textfile.txt textfile.bak #For Previous Command (for comparison) !-1 repeat whole command !! repeat (shortcut) !:0 command !^ first parameter !:1 first parameter !:1-4 first 4 parameters !$ last parameter !* all parameters !!:s/bash/zsh (or ^bash^zsh) !^:t just file name of first parameter !$:h just path of last parameter !-2$:r just file name without extension of first parameter For last but one command !-2 repeat last but one command !-2^ first parameter last but one command !-2$ last parameter last but one command !-2:2 second parameter of second but last command !-2:s/bash/zsh etc For history command 42 !42 !:0 is the previous command name !^, !:2, !:3, !$ are the arguments !* is all the arguments !-2, !-3, are earlier commands !-2^, !-2:2, !-2$, !-2* are earlier parameters cd !$:h (remove file name) cat !!:t (only file name) # Convert images (foo.gif => foo.jpg): $ for i in **/*.gif; convert $i $i:r.jpg # examples of if then else conditionals *N* if [ $# -gt 0 ];then string=$*;else;string=$(getclip);fi # get parameter OR paste buffer var=133;if [[ "$var" = ]] ; then echo « $var is numeric » ;fi if [[ "$ip" = ]] then # check ip address numeric *N* if [[ "$1" == [0-9] ]] # if $1 is a digit if (( $# == 0 )); if [ $# -gt 0 ] # parameter cnt > 0 (arguments) if [[ "$url" = www* ]] # begins with www if [ "$p1" = "end" ] || [ "$p1" = "-e" ] if [[ "$p2" == *[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z]* ]] # contains at least 3 letters if builtin cd $1 &> /dev/null ; if [[ -e /c/aam/z$1 ]] # file exists if [ $cnt -eq 1 ] if (( ${#dirs} == 1 )); then # count array length if [[ "$pwd" == *$site2* ]] print ${param:&} (last substitute) < readme.txt # < shorthand for more # Directory substitution (magic) # if you were in directory /c/inetpub/ cd dev www #would put you in parallel directory /c/inetpub/ # filtering the output of a command conventionally print $(history -n -1|sed ‘s/.* //’) # ${${(z)foo}[2]} zsh filtering mechanism print ${${(z)$(history -n -1)}[-1]} print ${${(z)history[$((HISTCMD-1))]}[-1]} gvim.exe $(history -n -1 | sed « s/^[^ ]* //;s/ .*// ») print ${${(z)history[$((HISTCMD-1))]}[2]} # ls ls -ld **/*(/^F) # list any empty directories print **/*(/^F) | xargs -n1 -t rmdir #delete empty directories zargs rmdir — ./**/*(/od) 2> /dev/null # deletes empty directories ls ^x* # list all but x* #list all files without an extension ( no dot) ls *~*.*(.) # delete all directories Pictures_of_* except Pictures_of_beautiful_flowers rm -rf Pictures_of_^beautiful_flowers # selective delete *N* ls (x*~x3|x5) # list files x* except x3 and x5 ls **/fred*~*junk*/* # list all files fred* unless in a junk directory # grep, dont use egrep, grep -E is better # single quotes stop the shell,  » quotes allow shell interaction grep ‘host’ **/(*.cfm~(ctpigeonbot|env).cfm) grep -i ‘host’ **/(*.cfm~(ctpigeonbot|env).cfm)~*((#s)|/)junk*/*(.) egrep -i « ^ *mail\( » **/*.php grep « ^ *mail\( » **/*.php~*junk*/* #find all calls to mail, ignoring junk directories # grep ‘.’ dot matches one character grep b.g file # match bag big bog but not boog # grep * matches 0 , 1 or many of previous character grep « b*g » file # matches g or bg or bbbbg # grep ‘.*’ matches a string grep « b.*g » file # matches bg bag bhhg bqqqqqg etc # grep break character is \ grep ‘hello\.gif’ file grep « cat\|dog » file matches lines containing the word « cat » or the word « dog » grep « I am a \(cat\|dog\) » matches lines containing the string « I am a cat » or the string « I am a dog » grep « Fred\(eric\)\? Smith » file # grep fred or frederic # grep back references (memory) grep -i « < h\1= »"> » *.html # matches pairs of tags tel blenkinsop | grep -o « [[:alnum:][:graph:]]*@[[:alnum:][:graph:]]* » # filter just an email address from a text stream (not zsh) *N* # ls ls *.h~(fred|foo).h # same thing ls (x*~x[3-5]) # list files x* except x3 to x5 ls *[^2].php~*template* # list files with 2nd filter ls (xx|yy) # list xx or yy ls *.(jpg|gif) # list graphic files ls fred{joe,sid}.pl ls fred{09..13}.pl # range ls list all files to range ls # list all files to fred9999*.pl etc ls {_,}fred.php # list files _fred.php fred.php ls (_|)fred.php # same effect by globbing ls *.{jpg,gif}(.N) # don’t break if one or other image type absent # FNG optionally matching a character ls -l *y{2,}.cfm # matches *y.cfm and *y2.cfm *N* ls -l *y(2|).cfm # matches *y.cfm and *y2.cfm *N* ls *{y2,y}.cfm # matches *y.cfm and *y2.cfm *N* ls *y2#.cfm # matches *y.cfm and *y2.cfm *N* ls foot(fall) # match option string fall setopt no_case_glob # set ignore case for ls etc zstyle ‘:completion:*’ matcher-list ‘m:{a-zA-Z}={A-Za-z}’ ‘r:|[._-]=* r:|=*’ ‘l:|=* r:|=*’ # case insensitive completion for cd etc *N* # globbing modifiers # :r removes the suffix from the result, # :t takes away the directory part # . means must be regular files not directories etc # *(om[1]) picks most recently modified file # (.N) no warning message if any file absent ls (#i)*.pmm # case insensitive globbing (note exact syntax) ls *(om[1]) # print the most recent file cp *(om[1]) # will complete file name ls *(.om[1]) # print the most recent file (not directory) ls -l *(Om[1]) # oldest file ls -lt **/*.tex([1,5]) # list 5 most recent files in hierarchy # list 5 most recent files in each sub-directory dirs=(  » **/*(DM/) ) eval ‘ls ${^dirs}*([1,5])’ ls {^dev*,}/index.php(.N) # ignore directories beginning dev* ls **/index.php~dev*(/*)## # ignore subdirectories dev* multi-level vi *(.om[1]^D) # vi newest file ^D means switch off GLOB_DOTS ir ignore dot files ls *.txt(.om[1]) # ls newest *.txt file *N* ls -tld **/*(m-2)# list files modified in last 2 days in hierarchy ls *(om[1,5]) # print the 5 most recent files ls -l *(m4) # list files modified exactly 4 days ago ls -ltd *(mw3) # list files 3 weeks old ls -1ld *([1,10])# list just 10 files one per line , no directories ls *(m-1) # files modified today ls *(m0) # files modified today ls *(^m0) # files NOT modified today *N* vi *(m0) # re-edit all files changed today! ls *.{aux,dvi,log,toc} # rm latex temp files *C* rm ./*(Om[1,-11])# removes all files but the ten newest ones (delete all but last 10 files in a directory) mv *.*(^m-1) old/ # move all but today’s files to sub-directory archive older files *N* files=(${(f) »$(ls *$**) »}(.N)) # store matching files *N* ls *(n:t) # order by name strip directory ls **/*(On:t) # recursive reverse order by name, strip directory ls PHP*/**/*.php # recursive but only for subdirectories PHP* ls *.c(:r) # strip suffix ls **/*(.) # only files no directories ls -ld *(/) # list only directories #oddities [[ FOO = (#i)foo ]] # case insensitive matching fred=$((6**2 + 6)) # can do maths : > /apache/access.log # truncate a log file # arrays X=(x1 x2) # create an array print -C 1 $X # print each array element on it’s own line # 2 dimensional arrays- lookup conversion *N* typeset -A convtable convtable=(151 2 152 2 153 2 158 4 159 3 160 2 171 4 172 1 173 4) echo $convtable[158] print ${#path} # length of « path » array print ${#path[1]} # length of first element in path array print ${$( date )[2,4]} # Print words two to four of output of ’date’: array=(~/.zshenv ~/.zshrc ~/.zlogout) filelst[$(($#filelst+1))]=$x # append (push) to an array filelst+=($x) # append (push) to an array (better) files=(${(f) »$(egrepcmd1l) »} ) # push a sentence to an array (where egrepcmd1l is a global alias % print ${array:t} .zshenv .zshrc .zlogout # variable substitution somevar= »bu&^*ck » # variable with mucky characters print ${somevar//[^[:alnum:]]/_} # replace all non-alphanumerics with _ the // indicates global substitution *C* echo ${file##*/} # echo just the file name (strip the path) echo ${texfilepath%/*.*} # echo just the path (strip the file name) echo ${file%.*} # strip file extension echo $file:r # strip file extension echo ${0##*[!0-9]} # strip all but trailing digit from filename $0 echo ${(M)0%%} # strip all but trailing digit from filename file=${1/\//C:\/} # substitute / with c:/ ANYWHERE in string file=${1/#\//C:\/} # substitute / with c:/ Beginning of string file=${1/%\//C:\/} # substitute / with c:/ End of string # note # & % are using to match beginning and end wpath=${wpath//\//\\\\} # substitute Unix / with dos \ slashes *N* upath=${wpath//\\/\/} # convert backslashes to forward slashes (Dos to Unix dpath=${upath/#\/c\//c:/} # convert /c/path/ to c:\path\ *N* foo=$’bar\n\nbaz\n’ print ${foo//$’\n’} # strip out any carriage returns (some systems use \r) *N* print ${foo%%$’\n’} # strip out a trailing carriage return *N* url=’’ anchortext=${${(C)url//[_-]/ }:t} # titlecase *N* echo « $anchortext » # creating a family of functions # generate hrefs from url function href{,s} { # href creates an HTML hyperlink from a URL # hrefs creates an HTML hyperlink from a URL with modified anchor text PROGNAME=`basename $0` url=`cat /dev/clipboard` if [ "$PROGNAME" = "href" ] ; then href= »$url » elif [ "$PROGNAME" = "hrefs" ] ; then anchortext=${${(C)url//[_-]/ }:t} href= »$anchortext » fi echo -n $col echo $href > /dev/clipboard | more } # create vim scratch files v1,v2 to v9 function vx{0..9} {gvim.exe c:/aax/${0/#v/} &} # # create vim scratch files va,vb to vz function vx{a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j,k,l,m,n,o,q,r,s,t,u,v,w,x,y,z} { scratchfile=${0/#v/} gvim.exe c:/aax/$scratchfile & } # regular expressions in zsh examples *N* #pcre perl regular expressions *N* zmodload zsh/pcre setopt REMATCH_PCRE var=ddddd; [[ "$var" =~ ^d+$ ]] && echo matched || echo did not match var=dddee; regexp= »^e+$ »; [[ "$var" =~ $regexp ]] && echo $regexp matched $var || echo $regexp did not match $var # decisions # cd to different drive depending on Windows login name drive=$([[ "$LOGNAME" != davidr ]] && echo ‘/o’ || echo ‘/c’) # trad way cd ${drive}/inetpub/wwwdev/ drive=${${${LOGNAME:#davidr}:+/o}:-/c} # zsh way cd ${drive}/inetpub/wwwdev/ # chaining two modifications # .om[1] gives newest file # cyg is a zsh function doing a path conversion gvim.exe $(echo /c/aax/*(.om[1]))(+cyg) & ### nested gvim.exe /c/aax/*(.om[1]+cyg) & #### both operations # odd stuff not necessarily zsh cp -a file1 file # -a transfer permissions etc of file1 to file2preserve # only copy if destination file exists and is older that source file [[ -e $L/config.php ]] && cp -p -update $T/config.php $L *N* # variable with variable name eval « $1=$PWD » # brilliant will change your life dirs -v # *N* cd ~5 # cd to fifth directory in directory stack cd – then type number of directory dirs -p # display recent directories *N* cp file ~1 # where 1 is first entry in pushd stack pushd +2 # cd to 3rd entry in pushd stack #zsh completion startfilename # will complete matching files anywhere in $PATH startfilename # will list matching files anywhere in $PATH vi main*~*temp* # avoid file with temp in the name cd /u/lo/li completes to /usr/local/lib #directory sizes du -sk *(/) # Inline aliases, zsh -g aliases can be anywhere in command line alias -g G=’| grep -’ alias -g L=’| less’ #this reduces a command like ls | grep foo | less #to ls G foo L # alias -g R=’ > /c/aaa/tee.txt ‘ # redirect alias -g T=’ | tee /c/aaa/tee.txt ‘ # tee alias -g F=’ | fmt -’ # format alias -g W=’ | wc -l’ # wc # # cd by .. or … or … or mv file …./. alias ‘..’='cd ..’ alias -g …=’../..’ alias -g ….=’../../..’ alias -g …..=’../../../..’ # suffix based alias alias -s jpg=’/c/program\ files/IrfanView/i_view32.exe’ now just type the image name to launch irfanview alias -s php=’c:/wamp/php/php.exe’ # now just type test.php to execute it *N* # named directories (these are a type of alias) hash -d zsh= »/usr/src/zsh » # create shortcuts to deep directories *N* cd ~zsh #magic equals vim =some_file # edits file anywhere in $PATH ls =some_file # lists file anywhere in $PATH #magic ** (recursion) vim **/some_file # edits file under under current dir # modifying more than one file (multios) # writes ls results to file1 & file2 appends to filec ls > file1 > file2 >> file3 | wc # multi-io myscript >&1 >output.txt # log a script output #Redirection to file as well as send on to pipe: make install > /tmp/logfile | grep -i error function g{0..9} { gmark $0 $* } # declaring multiple functions # zmv « programmable rename » autoload -U zmv # Replace spaces in filenames with a underline zmv ‘* *’ ‘$f:gs/ /_’ zmv ‘(* *)’ ‘${1// /}’ zmv -Q « (**/)(* *)(D) » « \$1\${2// /_} » # Change the suffix from *.sh to *.pl zmv -W ‘*.sh’ ‘*.pl’ # lowercase/uppercase all files/directories $ zmv ‘(*)’ ‘${(L)1}’ # lowercase $ zmv ‘(*)’ ‘${(U)1}’ # uppercase #Wonderful zftp (write ftp scripts as though shell) # init (could be in .zshenv etc) autoload -U zfinit zfinit zfparams myuserid mypassword zfopen zfcd tips zfls -l zshtips.html zfput zshtips.html zfls -l zshtips.html # replace every occurence of a file (zsh and bash) for f in */include/dbcommon.php; do;cp dbcommon.php $f; done # create a clone of a file, modifying it on the fly *N* for i in {3,4}; sed s/flag=2/flag=$i/ fred.txt > fred$i.txt for i in {1..9}; sed s/flag=2/flag=$i/ fred.txt > fred$i.txt # loop a command *N* while true; do echo « infinite loop »; sleep 5; done # using vared vared -p « choose 1-3 :  » -c ans case $ans in 1|a) sdba $key;; 2|f) sdbf $key;; 3|i) sdbi $key;; *) echo « wrong answer $ans\n » ;; esac # the powerful select PROMPT3= »Choose File :  » select f in $(ls **/*.tex |egrep -i « ${param}[^/]*.tex ») do if [[ "$REPLY" = q ]] then break elif [[ -n "$f" ]]; then gvim $f fi done # multiple script commands on same line if [ $# -gt 0 ];then string=$*;else;string=$(getclip);fi # editing a variable (You must try this) vared PATH bindkey -v # vi mode line editting bindkey -M viins ‘^O’ copy-prev-shell-word bindkey ‘^L’ push-line # push current command into a buffer, allows you to do another command then returns to previous command # configure F7 to output a command bindkey -s ‘^v’ « ls -l\n » # configure F7 to output ‘ls -l’ bindkey -s « ^[[18~" "ls -l\n" # You must actually type Control-v F7 this is what it looks like on my system : # Prompt at end of command line RPROMPT="[%t] » (display the time) # colo(u)red prompt fg_light_red=$’%{\e[1;31m%}' PS3="$fg_light_red Select file : " # print fred in blue color print '\e[1;34m fred' # color module autoload colors ; colors print "$bg[cyan]$fg[blue]Welcome to man zsh-lovers » >> $TTY curl -u userid:password -d status= » updating twitter with from curl  » # my .zshenv *N* autoload -U compinit compinit autoload edit-command-line zle -N edit-command-line bindkey ‘\ee’ edit-command-line VISUAL=’/bin/vim’ EDITOR=’/bin/vim textify a phrase to create an image name s=’Fred Goat Dog’ print ${(L)s:gs/ /-/}.jpg or print ${(L)s// /-}.jpg and to de-textify an image foo=fred-goat-dog.jpg echo ${(C)foo:gs/-/ /:r} or print ${${(Cs:-:):-fred-goat-dog.jpg}%.*} #new # » read a file into a variable var= »$( Zsh Syntax Aide-Memoire *N* vi *(om[1]) # edit newest file gvim -p *(m0) # all files today mv *.*(^m-1) old/ # move all but todays files to sub-directory vi -p *(.om[1,3]) # open 3 newest files in tabs (gvim) ls *(^m0) # files NOT modified today ls -l *(m4) # list files modified exactly 4 days ago ls *.{jpg,gif}(.N) # don’t break if one or other image type absent mv !?main # recall previous command containing the string main mv !?main?:* # recall just parameters of previous command containing the string main ls -l **/main.{php,js,css} # *N* ls (x*~x[3-5]) # list files x* except x3 to x5 ls **/*~*/.git/* # ignore all git subdirectories *~* matches a path *N* # zsh menu echo « enter 0-2,a » read ans ; # read in a parameter case « $ans » in 0|${prog}0) cd « $(cat /c/aam/${prog}0) » ;; 1|${prog}1) cd « $(cat /c/aam/${prog}1) » ;; 2|${prog}9) cd « $(cat /c/aam/${prog}9) » ;; a|${prog}l) cd « $(cat /c/aam/${prog}a) » ;; **) echo « wrong number $ans\n » ;; esac Sources newsgroup gmane.comp.shells.zsh.user, masterzen Everything here is Simple zsh visit the above newsgroup for the Sick stuff Upload this page (use yy@ » on following line, to invoke upload zftp script)!! :!zshtipsftp <>

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